VIII Glossary

Abatement - Techniques for reducing risk of depredation by creating exclusions, establishing barriers, or using scare methods. Abatement practices that may be used to reduce wolf depredation would include fences, guard dogs, scare devices and other techniques.

Access - Refers to the ability of humans to penetrate an area and is usually measured by roads per square mile.

Critical Habitat -Term used in the Federal Endangered Act whereby certain areas are defined as critical to the survival of a species. Such a classification may restrict land use activity within designated areas. No areas in Wisconsin have been classified as critical habitat for timber wolves by the Federal Government.

Delisting - Refers to the act of removing a species from both endangered and threatened species classification. The act of delisting does not mean a species is no longer protected. Delisting federally indicates that a species no longer has Federal Endangered Species protection, but would fall under state management and protection authority.

Depredation - Refers to predation on domestic animals or animals that a predator would not normally encountered or killed in natural habitat.

Endangered - Federal designation of the term "endangered species" means any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range." [Federal Code 16USC SS 1532 (6)].

State designation of endangered species means "any species whose continued existence as a viable component of this state's wild animals or wild plants is determined by the Department to be in jeopardy on the basis of scientific evidence. [Wisconsin Statute 29.415(2)].

Favorable Habitat - As used in GIS analysis of potential wolf habitat (Mladenoff et al. 1995), refers to areas that have a 50% or greater probability of being settled by wolf packs. Such areas may also be called suitable habitat or primary wolf habitat. Areas of favorable wolf habitat have less than 0.7 mile of road per square mile, less than 10 people per square mile, and consists of over 90% forest or wildlands.

GIS - Geographic Information System - This is a computer mapping that allows for comparison of multiple landscape features and allows the comparison of landscapes with occurrence of animal or plant species.

GLIFWC - Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission; this is the agency that conducts wildlife and fisheries management activity for the Chippewa tribes in the ceded territories of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan.

International Wolf Center - A wolf educational organization located in Ely, Minnesota that promotes wolf education for worldwide wolf conservation activity.

Livestock - Any domesticated animal owned and raised as stock; including poultry, swine, sheep, goat, cattle, horses and kin, cats and dogs.

National Wildlife Health Lab - Facility formerly with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and now in the National Geological Survey in the U.S. Department of the Interior. The Madison, WI., health lab conducts research on wildlife diseases affecting migratory birds, federally endangered and threatened species, and other wildlife species of national concern.

Potentail Habitat - Habitat that is likely to be occupied in the future and includes mainly those areas that have a 50% or greater probability to be occupied.

Predation - Refers to the act of killing by predators for food. Predation usually is used to refer to predators killing normal prey species, whereas killing of domestic animals is referred to as depredation.

Proactive Depredation Control - Control activity conducted on predators before verified depredation has occurred, or control activity used before verification has occurred in the current season. Such activity would occur in areas of unsuitable habitat with high probability of depredations or conflict. Control activity would refer to euthanizing or translocation of potential depredators.

Reclassification - Refers to the act of changing listing from endangered to threatened or vice versa.

Roads - Generally this includes any travelways used by motorized vehicles. In GIS habitat analysis roads refers to travelways that are driveable by 2-wheel drive vehicles on a year-round basis. Low quality roads may also have some impact on wolf habitat, but are often more difficult to accurately measure and assess.

Semi-primitive Non-motorized Area - Land areas on national forest land that are closed to motorized vehicle travel by the general public but are still open to some timber management. These areas are similar to "wild areas" on state land.

Species - Organisms that are capable of interbreeding and is designated by a binomial term in Latin. The species designation of timber wolf or gray wolf is Canis lupus.

Subspecies - A grouping of organisms that differ from other members of their species by color, size or various morphological features; also referred to as race. Wolves in Wisconsin had been referred to as the Eastern timber wolf Canis lupus lycaon, but have recently been reclassified to the Great Plains wolf Canis lupus nubilus. The specific subspecies classification is not critical for determining wolf conservation needs.

Threatened - Wisconsin's designation of threatened species is "any species of wild animal or wild plant which appears likely within the foreseeable future on the basis of scientific evidence to become endangered" (Wisconsin Statutes Sec. 29.415(2)). Federal designation of threatened species is "likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range" (Federal Code 16USCSS1532(20)).

TWA - Timber Wolf Alliance - Wolf education organization working out of the Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute, Northland College in Ashland Wisconsin.

TWIN - Timber Wolf Information Network - Wolf education organization that is independently operated by volunteers out of Waupaca, Wisconsin.

USDA-APHIS-WS - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Service - The Federal agency responsible for dealing with problems caused by wildlife species, especially in agricultural situations; formerly known as Animal Damage Control (ADC). The Wisconsin DNR contracts USDA-APHIS-WS to assist wildlife management controlling depredating wildlife in the state including problems caused by bear, beaver, geese, plus timber wolf and other endangered species.

USFWS - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - The Federal agency in charge of programs on federally endangered and threatened species, as well as managing migratory birds and species having national significance.

Wild Areas - Portions of state land that are closed to motorized access by the general public, but are managed by some limited timber harvest. Management is similar to semi-primitive non-motorized areas on federal land.

Wilderness - Land under federal and state statues that are set aside to maintain these areas in primitive condition and are closed to any timber harvest or mechanized equipment.

Wildland - Land covered mainly be native vegetation and does not include agricultural, urban, or industrial areas.

WDNR - Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources - the state agency responsible for wildlife and fisheries conservation, including responsibility for managing state endangered and threatened species.

Wisconsin Wolf Advisory Committee - Wisconsin DNR sponsored committee responsible for proposing and evaluating policy and management programs for the state wolf population.